Saturday, September 14, 2019




Lip prints, like fingerprints are unique to an individual and can be easily recorded. Identification plays a major role in any crime investigation.
The pattern of wrinkles on the lips has individual characteristics like fingerprints.
Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique that deals with identification of humans based on lips traces.

Use Of Lip Prints In Crime Detection

Lip prints have the same value as Dactyloscopic traces.
Just like finger print and teeth, lip print can be used as tool for identification.
Lip prints are unique and do not change during life of a person.
They can be most frequently seen during murders, rapes and burglaries.
Traces with clear lines and individual elements enable individual identification of human beings.
In their character they are similar to other chemical and biological traces.

What Is Vermillion Zone?

The lips are the junction between the skin of the face which is Para keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and  the mucosa of the oral cavity which is moist non-keratinized to Para keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Between these two areas lies a transitional zone of reddish tissue known as the vermillion zone of the lip.
It is this vermillion zone which is commonly denoted as ‘lips’ in forensic identification procedures.


  • The biological phenomenon of systems of furrows on the red part of human lips was first noted by anthropologists R. Fischer in 1902.
  • In 1932, one of the France′s greatest criminologist Edmond Locard, recommended the use of lip print for identification of a person.
  • The idea of using lip print for identification was first suggested by Le Moyne Snyder in the year 1950. He introduced a case in which lip prints helped the crime scientist in an unusual way.
  • Dr. Martins Santos in 1960....Read More....

Anatomy & Morphology of Lips

Lip of human being consists of 2 parts
1.)  Upper Lip 
2.)  Lower Lip
Both these upper & lower lip are divided into six different regions, which are as follows-
Where,  UL – Upper Left,   UM – Upper Middle,   UR – Upper Right
                LL – Lower Left,   LM – Lower Middle,   LR – Left Right.

Other features of Lips

Following features are also present in lips which is use for individualization & comparison, which are as follows:


In 1967 Santos was the first person to classify lip grooves. He divided them in to four types namely:
  • Straight line
  • Curved line
  • Angled line
  • Sine-shaped line

Tsuchihashi Classification

Suzuki and Tsuchihashi, in 1970, devised a classification method of lip prints as follows:
  • Type I : A clear-cut groove running vertically across the lip.
  • Type I′ : Partial-length groove of Type I.
  • Type II : A Branched groove.
It include branch grooves across the whole lips.
  • Type III : An intersected groove.
It include grooves which are intersecting each other.
  • Type IV : A Reticular pattern
In this type lips contains rectangular grooves.
  • Type V : Other patterns.
Grooves which about fall in any of the above four categories.

Another type of Classification

Another Four types are also used to classified Lip Prints
....Read More....
Lip Groove Types
A – Complete Vertical;                   B – Incomplete Vertical;
 C – Complete Bifurcated;            D – Incomplete Bifurcated;         
 E – Complete Branched;                F – Incomplete Branched;           
 G – Reticular Pattern;                     H – Cross Form;
 I – Horizontal / Complete Horizontal;   J – Horizontal With Other Forms.

 Forms Of Lip Prints Found On Crime Scene

These 3 types of Lip Prints can be found at the scene of crime. Lip prints are available particularly in the following forms-
1.) Visib....Read More....

How To Search Lip Prints On Crime Scene

  • The search for possible Lip Prints needs a systematic and narrowly approach to the suspected areas.
  • A magnifying lens is useful to locate and judge the quality of the Lip Prints.
  •  Traces of lips should be looked for on cutlery and crockery items, on the window or door glass and on photograph or letters. Lip print may also appear on side by side with tooth marks on food products. In practice, lip prints have also seen in the windows, painting, doors, plastic bags and cigarette ends.
  • Observation under white light may reveal latent Lip Prints that can be photographed without any further treatment.
  • Lip Prints can frequently be seen by holding the flashlight at low angles so that the surface is observed under oblique lighting.
  • In some cases, latent print can often be detected using episcope coaxial illumination. The print is, therefore, visible as dark ridges against a light background.

The process is concerned with recognition, examination, identification, individualization, and evaluation.

Development of Lip prints

1.} Powder Method
2.} Chemical Method
3.} X-Ray Method

....Read More....

Lifting of Lip Prints

There Are 2 Methods Are Applied For Lifting Of Lip Prints-
  • Photographic Method – The developed prints should always be photographed by using a fixed focus camera or variable zoom photographic camera with the help of measuring.
  • Transparent Tape Method – Powder dusted lip prints can be lifted with the help of transparent tape from a liquid and hard surface.

Collection of Lip Prints from Suspect

  • Lip prints can be recorded in a number of ways.
  • Photographing the suspect′s lips.
  • Applying lipstick, lip rouge, or other suitable transfer mediums to the lips and then having the individual press his or her lips to a piece ....Read More....

Examination and Comparison

Generally two prints are required for comparison :
  • A lip print recorded from the Scene Of Crime (SoC);and
  • A lip print which has been taken from suspect.
Both compared on the basis of individual characteristics of Lip Prints.
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